Dog and Puppy Health

dog health care

Dog Eye Health Problems

There are various eye problems that can affect your dog's eye health. Here you'll find a list of some of the most commone ones.

Cherry eye is the term used to refer to canine nictitans gland prolapse, a common eye condition in various dog breeds where the gland of the third eyelid prolapses and becomes visible. It appears as a red mass in the inner corner of the eye, sometimes mistaken for a tumor.

The condition generally occurs before the age of two years. The eye becomes chronically inflamed and there is often a discharge if this is not corrected. Because the gland is responsible for a large portion of the eye's tear production, the eye can eventually suffer from dryness.

Surgery is the usual treatment for this problem. Older methods of cherry eye correction involved simply removing the gland, but it is a last-resort procedure today (complemented with a lifetime of eyedrops if performed), as the gland's purpose was unknown then. Modern methods of cherry eye correction involve repositioning of the gland to its normal location. The success rate of this type of surgery is approximately 80% in most breeds.

Eye proptosis is a condition resulting in forward displacement and entrapment of the eye from behind by the eyelids. The condition is also known as eye dislocation and eye luxation. It is a common result of head trauma in dogs. This dog eye health issue usually occurs in brachycephalic (short nosed) breeds.

Only about 20 percent of proptosed eyes retain vision after being replaced in the orbit, so in most cases the condition is corrected for cosmetic reasons. Otherwise, the eye is removed in a relatively simple surgery known as enucleation. Replacement of the eye requires general anesthesia. The eyelids are pulled outward, and the eye is gently pushed back into place. The eyelids are sewn together in a procedure known as tarsorrhaphy for about five days to keep the eye in place. Replaced eyes have a higher rate keratoconjunctivitis sicca and keratitis and often require lifelong treatment.

The prognosis for a replaced eye is determined by the extent of damage to the cornea and sclera, and by the presence of ruptured rectus muscles. The rectus muscles normally help hold the eye in place and direct eye movement. Rupture of more than two rectus muscles usually requires that the eye be removed, because there is usually also significant blood vessel and nerve damage

Retinal dysplasia is an eye disease affecting the retina of animals. It is usually a nonprogressive disease and can be caused by viral infections, drugs, vitamin A deficiency, or genetics. Retinal dysplasia is characterized by folds or rosettes (round clumps) of the retinal tissue.

Most cases of retinal dysplasia in dogs are hereditary. It can involve one or both retinas. Retinal dysplasia can be focal, multifocal, geographic, or accompanied by retinal detachment. Focal and multifocal retinal dysplasia appears as streaks and dots in the central retina.

Geographic retinal dysplasia appears as an irregular or horseshoe-shaped area of mixed hyper or hyporeflectivity in the central retina. Retinal detachment occurs with complete retinal dysplasia, and is accompanied by blindness in that eye. Cataracts or glaucoma can also occur secondary to retinal dysplasia. Other causes of retinal dysplasia in dogs include infection with canine adenovirus or canine herpesvirus, or radiation of the eye in newborns.

Commonly affected breeds
Bedlington Terrier - complete retinal dysplasia.
Sealyham Terrier - complete retinal dysplasia.
Rottweiler - focal or multifocal.
English Springer Spaniel - focal, multifocal, or geographic.
American Cocker Spaniel - focal or multifocal.
Beagle - focal or multifocal.
Cavalier King Charles Spaniel - retinal folds, geographic, or retinal detachment.
Labrador Retriever - focal, multifocal, geographic, or complete retinal dysplasia. It can also be seen in combination with a congenital skeletal disorder.
Australian Shepherd - retinal dysplasia occurs with other eye disorders, such as an oval pupil, microcornea (small cornea), cataracts, and retinal detachment

Corneal dystrophy is a noninflammatory, inherited, bilateral condition affecting the transparent front part of the eye called the cornea. It is common dog eye health problem seen in dogs. It appears as grayish white lines, circles, or clouding of the cornea. Corneal dystrophy can also have a crystalline appearance. It is caused by an accumulation of lipids or cholesterol crystals.

Corneal dystrophy does not usually significantly affect vision and therefore does not require treatment. It can, however, rarely cause corneal ulceration, especially with epithelial dystrophy.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

"Better not take a dog on the space shuttle, because if he sticks his head out when you're coming home his face might burn up."
~ Jack Han


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