Spaying and Neutering Procedures
Usually spaying and neutering procedures have been achieved by surgical techniques involving gross removal of the entire organs involved in the progenetary process. In females, this is known as spaying, and involves complete surgical removal of the ovaries and uterus. In males it is known as neutering (or castration), and involves removal of the entire male testicles.
In female animals, spaying involves abdominal surgery to remove the ovaries and uterus (ovariohysterectomy). It is commonly practiced on household pets such as cats and dogs as a method of birth control, but is rarely performed on livestock.
The surgery is usually performed through a ventral (belly) midline incision below the belly button. The incision size varies depending upon the surgeon and the size of the animal. The uterine horns are identified and the ovaries are found by following the horns to their ends.
There is a ligament that attaches the ovaries to the kidneys which needs to be broken so the ovaries can be identified. The ovarian arteries are then ligated twice (tied-off) with absorbable suture material and then the arteries transected (cut). The uterine body (which is very short in litter bearing species) and related arteries are also tied off just in front of the cervix (leaving the cervix as a natural barrier). The entire uterus and ovaries are then removed. The abdomen is checked for bleeding and then closed with a 3 layer closure. The linea alba (muscle layer) and then the subcutaneous layer (fat under skin) are closed with absorbable suture material. The skin is then stapled, sutured, or glued closed.
In male animals, neutering involves the removal of the testes, and is commonly practiced on both household pets (for birth control) and on livestock (for birth control, as well as to improve commercial value).
Modern non-surgical alternatives
Male dogs - Dog is injected with Neutersol (Zinc gluconate neutralized by arginine). Cytotoxic; produces infertility by chemical disruption of the testicle.
Female mammals - Dog is injected with "SpayVac" (purified porcine zona pellucida antigens encapsulated in liposomes - cholesterol and lecithin - with an adjuvant.) Produces infertility by inducing an immune response to the egg.
Another non-surgical alterntive is a Noninvasive vasectomy using ultrasound.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
"Yesterday I was a dog. Today I'm a dog.
Tomorrow I'll probably still be a dog. Sigh!
There's so little hope for advancement."
~ Snoopy (Charles M. Schulz)